In Sri Lanka, although paediatric cancer cases are rare, authorities admit that the numbers are growing. Apeksha Hospital Maharagama is a specialized government hospital under the Ministry of Health and Indigenous Medicine and is the National Cancer Institute in Sri Lanka. It was established in 1958 to provide radiation treatment. The total number of patients treated at Apeksha Hospital every year is about 12,500 and out of this about 500 are paediatric patients.

The main type of cancer seen in is cancer of the blood and bone marrow and Leukemia is the most prevalent in children below the age of 15 years. Cancer of the nervous system and the eye are also seen in children. Out of all cancer patients in the age group of 0 -14 years in Sri Lanka, 44% of males and 37.9% of females are suffering from Leukemia.